2020_07_31It was 3:45 in the morning when the vote was finally taken. After six months of arguing and final 16 hours of hot parliamentary debates, Australia’s Northern Territory became the first legal authority in the world to allow doctors to take the lives of incurably ill patients who wish to die. The measure passed by the convincing vote of 15 to 10. Almost immediately word flashed on the Internet and was picked up, half a world away, by John Hofsess, executive director of the Right to Die Society of Canada. He sent it on by way of the group’s online service, Death NET. Says Hofsess: “We posted bulletins all day long, because of course this isn’t just something that happened in Australia. It’s world history.”
直到凌晨3:45分的时候投票才最终被确定。经过四个小时的争论和最后16个小时的议会讨论，澳大利亚北方地区成为世界上第一个允许医生终结那些无法治愈疾病希望死亡人们的生命的合法当局。这个措施以一个令人信服的投票比15:10通过。几乎这个消息立刻被显示到了网上，被John Hofsess加拿大有权死亡协会执行性理事得知。他通过组织的网络服务器将这条信息发布到了死亡网上。John Hofsess说我们长时间的发布公告，因为当然这不仅仅是一些发生在澳大利亚的事情，这是世界的历史时刻。
The full import may take a while to sink in. The NT Rights of the Terminally Ill Law has left physicians and citizens alike trying to deal with its moral and practical implications. Some have breathed sighs of relief, others, including churches, right-to-life groups and the Australian Medical Association, bitterly attacked the bill and the hurry of its passage. But the tide is unlikely to turn back. In Australia—where an aging population, life-extending technology and changing community attitudes have all played their part—other states are going to consider making a similar law to deal with euthanasia (安乐死). In the US and Canada, where the right-to-die movement is gathering strength, observers are waiting for the dominoes (多米诺骨牌) to start falling.
Under the new Northern Territory law, an adult patient can request death — probably by a deadly injection or pill — to put an end to suffering. The patient must be diagnosed (诊断) as Terminally Ill by two doctors. After a “cooling off” period of seven days, the patient can sign a certificate of request. After 48 hours the wish for death can be met. For Lloyd Nickson, a 54-year-old Darwin resident suffering from lung cancer, the NT Rights of Terminally Ill Law means he can get on with living without the haunting fear of his suffering: a terrifying death from his breathing condition. “I’m not afraid of dying from a spiritual point of view, but what I was afraid of was how I’d go, because I’ve watched people die in the hospital fighting for oxygen and clawing at their masks,” he says.
在新北方当局权利法案下，一个成年患者可以请求死亡，可能是通过注射或者药物去终结这种苦难。病人一定要同时被两名医生被诊断为晚期疾病。在一个星期的“冷静期”后，换这可以签署一份请求确认书。在48小时后死亡的愿望将被得以满足。对于Lloyd Nickson一个54岁 Darwin（达尔文市）市民正在遭受肺癌的苦难，澳大利亚北方当局晚期病人权利法案意味着他能够继续生活不用魂牵梦萦的恐惧这种苦难- -一个因为呼吸状况导致的可怕死亡。他说:“从心灵一个点去看，我并不害怕死亡，但是我十分担心我是怎么走的，因为我曾经看到人们死在医院里为了氧气而斗争用手抓他们的面具”
2020_08_01Much of the language used to describe monetary policy, such as steering the economy to a soft landing or a touch on the brakes, makes itself sound like a precise science. Nothing could be further from the truth. The link between interest rates and inflation is uncertain. And there are long, variable lags before policy changes have any effect on the economy. Hence there is an analogy that likens the conduct of monetary policy to driving a car with a blackened windscreen, a cracked rearview mirror and a faulty steering wheel.
Given all these disadvantages, central bankers seem to have had much to boast about of late. Average inflation in the big seven industrial economies fell to a mere 2.3% last year, close to its lowest level in 30 years, before rising slightly to 2.5% this July. This is a long way below the double-digit rates which many countries experienced in the 1970s and early 1980s.
It is also less than most forecasters had predicted. In late 1994 the panel of economists which The Economist polls each month said that America’s inflation rate would average 3.5% in 1995. In fact, it fell to 2.6% in August, and is expected to average only about 3% for the year as a whole. In Britain and Japan inflation is running half a percentage point below the rate predicted at the end of last year. This is no flash in the pan; over the past couple of years, inflation has been consistently lower than expected in Britain and America.
Economists have been particularly surprised by favourable inflation figures in Britain and the United States, since conventional measures suggest that both economies, and especially America’s, have little productive slack. America’s capacity utilisation, for example, hit historically high levels earlier this year, and its jobless rate (5.6% in August) has fallen below most estimates of the natural rate of unemployment-the rate below which inflation has taken off on the past.
Why has inflation proved so mild? The most thrilling explanation is, unfortunately, a little defective. Some economists argue that powerful structural changes in the world have upended the old economic models that were based upon the historical link between growth and inflation.
2020_08_03In the first year or so of Web business, most of the action has revolved around efforts to Lap the consumer market. More recently, as the Web proved to be more than a fashion. companies have started to buy and sell products and services with one another. Such business-to-business sales make sense because business people typically know what product they’re looking for. 大约在电子商务的第一年，大多数的行为都是围绕顾客市场的努力。最近，网站证明是不仅仅是时尚。公司开始相互的去购买、销售产品和服务。例如，公司对公司的销售因为"老板通常都知道他们需要的产品是什么？"而有意义。 Nonetheless, many companies still hesitate to use the Web because of doubts about its reliability. "Businesses need to feel they can trust the pathway between them and the supplier," says senior analyst Blane Erwin of Forrester Research. Some companies are limiting the risk by conducting online transactions only with established business partners who are given access to the company's private intranet. 虽然如此，很多的公司仍然犹豫去利用网络因为对他的可靠性表示怀疑。福雷斯特研究公司的高级分析师布兰·埃温说：“公司需要去感到他们能够想象他们和供货商之间的信任”。一些公司限制于风险，只和已经建立的且提供公司特殊网络通道的生意伙伴引导网络接口。 Another major shift in the model for Internet commerce concerns the technology available for marketing. Until recently, Internet marketing activities have focused on strategies to "pull" customers into sites. In the past year, however, software companies have developed tools chat allow companies to "push" information directly out to consumers, transmitting marketing messages directly to targeted customers, Most notably, the Pointcast Network uses a screen saver to deliver a continually updated stream of news and advertisements to subscribers' computer monitors. Subscribers can customize the information they want to receive and proceed directly to a company's Web site. Companies such as Virtual Vineyards are already starting to use similar technologies to push messages to customers about special sales, product offering, or other events.But push technology has earned the contempt of many Web users. Online culture thinks highly of the notion that the information flowing onto the screen comes there by specific request. Once commercial promotion begins to fill the screen uninvited, the distinction between the Web and television fades. Thar's a prospect that horrifies Net purists. 互联网商业模式的另一个重大转变涉及可用于营销的技术。直到最近，互联网市场活动关注于直接拉顾客到网页中。在过去的几年里，虽然软件公司建立工具让公司交流去直接推送信息给顾客，直接向目标客服传递营销信息。订阅者可以自定义他们想要接收的信息，并直接进入公司网站。最值得注意的是，定点广播网站用一系列的节约装置去投递关于向订阅者的计算机广告，新闻和广告持续的更新数据。订阅者可以定制他们想要的信息和直接进入他们的公司网站。公司例如虚拟Vineyards已经准备好开始用一个相似的技术去推送关于特殊销售的信息给顾客。产品的提供和其他事件，但是推送技术已经遭到了很多网民的蔑视。网络文化将信息流入屏幕通过特殊的请求的概念看的很高。一旦商业的提升开始未经邀请的充满屏幕，网络和电视的边界将会逐渐消失。这是一个可怕的网络纯粹主义者的前景。 But it is hardly inevitable that companies on the Web will need to resort to push strategies to make money, The examples of Virtual Vineyards, Amazon.com and other pioneers show that a Web site selling the right. kind of products with the right mix of interactivity, hospitality, and security will attract online customers, And the cost of computing power continues to free fall, which is a good sign for any enterprise setting up shop m silicon. People looking back 5 or 10 years from now may well wonder why so few companies took the online plunge. 但是这是十分困难的不可避免的说网络公司将需要去求助于直接推送获取利益，例如虚拟葡萄园、亚马逊和其他开发者表明了网站销售正确性。具有正确的交互性组合产品，医疗和安全将会吸引网络顾客，并且计算机成本消耗的持续降低，这对于任何一个商家建立自己的网络商店都是好的标志。人们从现在开始回顾过去的五到十年可能会怀疑为什么如此少的公司在网上投入。
2020_08_04In the last half of the nineteenth century ."capital" and "labour" were enlarging and perfecting their rival organisations on modern lines. Many an old firm was replaced by a limited liability company with a bureaucracy of salaried managers. The change met the technical requirements of the new age by engaging a large professional element and prevented the decline in efficiency that so commonly spoiled the fortunes of family firms in the second and third generation after the energetic founders. It was moreover a step away from individual initiative, towards collectivism and municipal and state-owned business. The railway companies, though still private business managed for the benefit of shareholders, were very unlike old family business. At the same time the great municipalities went into business to supply lighting, trams and other services to the taxpayers.
The growth of the limited liability company and municipal business had important consequences. Such large, impersonal manipulation of capital and industry greatly increased the numbers and importance of shareholders as a class, an element in national life representing irresponsible wealth detached from the land and the duties of the landowners, and almost equally detached from the responsible management of business. All through the nineteenth century, America, Africa, India, Australia and parts of Europe were being developed by British capital, and British shareholders were thus enriched by the world’s movement towards industrialisation. Towns like Bournemouth and Eastbourne sprang up to house large “comfortable” classes who had retired on their incomes, and who had no relation to the rest of the community except that of drawing dividends and occasionally attending a shareholders’meeting to dictate their orders to the management. On the other hand “shareholding” meant leisure and freedom which were used by many of the later Victorians for the highest purpose of a great civilization.
The “shareholders” as such had no knowledge of the lives, thoughts or needs of the workmen employed by the company in which be held shares, and his influence on the relations of capital and labour was not good. The paid manager acting for the company was in more direct relation with the men and their demands,but even be had seldom that familiar personal knowledge of’ the workmen which the employer had often had under the more patriarchal system of the old family business now passing away. Indeed the mere size of operations and the numbers of workmen involved rendered such personal relations impossible. Fortunately, however, the increasing power and organisation of the trade unions, at least in all skilled trades, enabled the workmen to meet on equal terms the managers of the companies who employed them. The cruel discipline of the strike and lockout taught the two parties to respect each other’s strength and understand the value of fair negotiation.
2020_08_05If you intend using humor in your talk to make people smile, you must know how to identify shared experiences and problems. Your humor must be relevant to the audience and should help to show them that you are one of them or that you understand their situation and are in sympathy with their point of view. Depending on whom you are addressing, the problems will be different. If you are talking to a group of managers, you may refer to the disorganized methods of their secretaries; alternatively if you are addressing secretaries, you may want to comment on their disorganized bosses. 如果你想要在你的谈话中利用幽默让人们微笑，你一定知道如何去辨别分享经验和问题。你的幽默必须和听众有关，应该帮助向他们去表明说你是其中之一或者说你理解他们的处境并且对他们的观点表示同情。取决于你的地址，问题将会变的不一样。如果你谈话的是组织的管理者，你可能指的是他们秘书杂乱无章的地方，或者如果你跟秘书谈话，你可能想要去评价他们杂乱无章的老板。 Here is an example, which I heard at a nurses' convention, of a story which works well because the audience all shared the same view of doctors. A man arrives in heaven and is being shown around by St. Peter. He sees wonderful accommodations, beautiful gardens, sunny weather, and so on. Everyone is very peaceful, polite and friendly until, waiting in a line for lunch, the new arrival is suddenly pushed aside by a man in a black coat, who rushes to the head of the line, grabs his food and stomps over to a table by himself. "Who is that?" the new arrival asked St. Peter. "Oh, that's God." came the reply, "but sometimes he thinks he's a doctor." 这里是一个例子，我曾经在护士的谈话中听到，一个十分有用的故事因为听众都在分享关于医生的相同观点。有一个人到达天堂并且被StP带着四处逛逛。他看到完美的诊疗室，美丽的花园，阳关灿烂的天气等等。每个人都十分的祥和，有礼貌并且友善，直到在排队等待午饭的时候，一个穿着白色大衣的新到达者冲到队伍最前方突然推开他在一旁，抓住他的食物并且快速一个人跺着脚走到一张桌子旁。”那是谁？”新来的人问圣彼得。”“哦，那是上帝。”回答说，“但有时他认为自己是个医生。” If you are part of the group which you are addressing, you will be in a position to know the experiences and problems which are common to all of you and it'll be appropriate for you to make a passing remark about the inedible canteen food or the chairman's notorious bad taste in ties. With other audiences you mustn't attempt to cut in with humor as they will resent an outsider making disparaging remarks about their canteen or their chairman. You will be on safer ground if you stick to scapegoats like the Post Office or the telephone system. 如果你是正在谈论组织的一份子，你将会在一个位置去知道所有你相同的经验和问题，并且这将会很适合你去做一个关于食堂难以下咽的食物通过的评价，或者领导臭名昭著对于领带的坏品味。伴随着其他的听众，你一定不要试图插入幽默当他们将要憎恨一个局外人对他们的食堂或他们的主席说贬义的话。你将会处于一个安全的组织如果你选择当一个像邮局和电话系统一样的替罪羊。 If you feel awkward being humorous, you must practice so that it becomes more natural. Include a few casual and apparently off-the-cuff(即兴的)remarks which you can deliver in a relaxed and unforced manner. Often it's the delivery which causes the audience to smile, so speak slowly and remember that a raised eyebrow or an unbelieving look may help to show that you are making a light-hearted remark. 如果你感觉明白了幽默，你一定要练习以便这将会变的自然。包括一些随意的，明显是即兴的评价，你可以用轻松和不受强迫的方式表达出来。通常是演讲让听众微笑。所以说慢点并且记住说扬起眉毛或是一个不相信的表情可能有助于表明你在说轻松愉快的话。 Look for the humor. It often comes from the unexpected. A twist on a familiar quote "If at first you don't succeed, give up" or a play on words or on a situation. Search for exaggeration and understatements. Look at your talk and pick out a few words or sentences which you can turn about and inject with humor. 寻找幽默，他总是来源于意想不到。一对双胞胎在一个熟悉的引语“如果在你第一次没有成功，放弃”，或者玩弄语言或情境。寻找夸张和轻描淡写。观察你的言论选取一些语言或者你可以再说一次并且注入幽默的句子。